The role of hydration degree of cations and anions on the
This study investigates how these differences affect the adsorption of a high-molecular-weight nonionic polyacrylamide on glass surfaces using AFM. The effect of chemistry, size and hydration of the anions is also investigated using chloride and nitrate anions. The bare and hydrated radii of the chloride and nitrate anion are listed in Table 1.
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About 70% of these are paper chemicals, 65% are petroleum additives, and 54% are leather auxiliary agents. A wide variety of pam polymer anion options are available to you, such as coating auxiliary agents, paper chemicals, and water treatment chemicals.
POLYACRYLAMIDE (PAM) AND PAM ALTERNATIVES WORKSHOP - dri.edu
wastewater from a third-stage anaerobic lagoon was mixed with high molecular weight PAM at concentrations of 0, 10, and 20 ppm and then surface applied to a silt loam soil packed in erosion boxes. Under various levels of slope and cover treatments, PAM use reduced NH4 +-N loss from 34 percent to 92 percent and reduced ortho-P loss
Synergy effects of biochar and polyacrylamide on plants
Synergy effects of biochar and polyacrylamide on plants growth and soil erosion control Article (PDF Available) in Environmental Earth Sciences 74(3) · February 2015 with 349 Reads DOI: 10.1007 ...
(PDF) Polyacrylamide Effect on Furrow Erosion and Infiltration
PDF | Erosion from furrow irrigated land is a serious problem in southern Idaho and elsewhere in the western United States. High molecular weight anionic Polyacrylamide (a water soluble polymer ...
Influence of polyacrylamide application to soil on movement
No adverse effects of PAM on soil microbiology have been reported. Grula et al. (1994) reported that PAMs, depending on molecular weight and the functional groups substituted, are capable of acting as incomplete substrates supporting microbial growth. Longer-chained PAMs are more resistant to metabolism than shorter-chained PAMs.
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Polyacrylamide - Wikipedia
Polyacrylamide (IUPAC poly(2-propenamide) or poly(1-carbamoylethylene), abbreviated as PAM) is a polymer (-CH 2 CHCONH 2-) formed from acrylamide subunits. It can be synthesized as a simple linear-chain structure or cross-linked , typically using N , N ' -methylenebisacrylamide .
Water and Erosion Management with Multiple Applications of
In 1996, the impact of multiple PAM applications on stream an estimated 160 000 to 200 000 ha were treated in the advance rate, net infiltration, runoff, soil loss, furrow- western USA (Lilleboe, 1997), for a 5 to 10 million bottom soil aggregate stability, and soil strength at the tonne soil conservation impact.
Comparison of adsorption affinity of anionic and cationic
The first one—anionic polyacrylamide (AN PAM) contained 30% of the ionizable carboxyl groups whereas the cationic polyacrylamide (CT PAM)—35% of the quaternary amine groups. The average molecular weight of the adsorbate was equal to 13,000 and 7000 kDa, respectively.
Super absorbent polymers: Highlights on PAC & PAM | Nonwovens
PAM is highly effective in reducing soil erosion off fields and can increase water infiltration into irrigated furrows(18,19). PAM has been shown to significantly reduce soil erosion by 90 - 95 per cent when applied to irrigation water. PAM's three most common forms are dry granules, solid blocks (cubes), and emulsified liquids.
Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge Awards Program Summary
----- The Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge Awards Program Summary of 1998 Award Entries and Recipients President Clinton announced the Green Chemistry Challenge on March 16, 1995, as one of his Reinventing Environmental Regulations Initiatives.
WO2011100665A2 - patents.google
polyacrylamide, the at least one hydrolysable polymer having a weight average molecular weight of 30,000 g/mol to 10,000,000 g/mol, and which is at least partially hydrolyzable to an anionic polymer having an anionic charge density of 0.1 to 20 milliequivalents/gram, typically 0.4 to 15 milliequivalents/gram, or typically 1 to 15 milliequivalents/gram, or typically 1 to 10 milliequivalents/gram, or typically 1 to 5 milliequivalents/gram, or typically 9 to 15 milliequivalents/gram at a ...
Chemical and photolytic degradation of polyacrylamides used
The physical properties of each polyacrylamide product are usually different. For example, the form of PAMs can be solid, emulsion, or solution, with molecular weight ranges from thousands to over million Dalton. Polyacrylamide is considered to be relatively nontoxic to humans, animals, fish, or plants (Seybold, 1994; WHO, 1985).
Improving crop production by the use of PAM: Potential
(25, 50, 75, 150, 300 and 600 kg ha-1) of gypsum together with low (5-8 million) and high (15-20 million) molecular weight anionic PAM were also tested to study their effect on turbidity of water and percolation rate through the soil column (11). Results Ameliorating a degraded hard-setting soil
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A wide variety of water treatment flocculating agent options are available to you, such as coating auxiliary agents, textile auxiliary agents, and plastic auxiliary agents. You can also choose from free samples, paid samples. There are 14,106 water treatment flocculating agent suppliers, mainly located in Asia.
pH Dependence of Acrylate-Derivative Polyelectrolyte
where X is the ionising (titrating) species and pK a the dissociation constant; the pH at which 50% of the carboxylic groups have been ionised. However, for a polyacid, this is a more contentious issue than studying small molecules due to each acid group is affected by the presence of neighbouring repeat units, which thus modify their titration behaviour.
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A laboratory research experiment under simulated heavy rainfall with tap water was conducted to investigate the effect of anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) application rates (0, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 g m-2) and molecular weights (12 and 18 Mg mol-1) on runoff, soil erosion, and soil nutrient loss at a slope of 5o.
(PDF) Polyacrylamide in Agriculture and Environmental Land
Anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) has been sold since 1995 to reduce irrigation‐induced erosion and enhance infiltration. Its soil stabilizing and flocculating properties improve runoff water quality by reducing sediments, N, dissolved reactive phosphorus
Chemosphere via MedWorm
The analysis of the spatial distribution of pollution revealed that the zinc-works itself is no longer the main source of contamination as was the case in 1998. Instead, in 2018 the main sources of As, Cd and Tl emissions were the erosion and deflation processes in old, unprotected mining and industrial waste dumps located near the ...
hydrolyzed polyacrylamide hpam: Topics by Science.gov
To reveal the responsible microorganisms for biofilm formation and stability of high-molecular-weight polyacrylamide (PAM), a biofilm, developed on the sieve of a piston plunger pump in a water transport and injection pipeline with partial hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) in Daqing Oilfield, was collected and analyzed by molecular microbiology ...
Synthesis and Characterization of PVA/AAC Foam and their
Polymers can vary in charge type (cationic, anionic, or neutral) and come in a range of charge densities and molecular weights. Polyacrylamide, a synthetic polymer, has been used in soil applications to reduce erosion (Zhang and Miller, 1996), increase infiltration (Green et al., 2000), promote flocculation (Laird, 1997), and enhance salt ...
Efficacy of Fluidized Bed Bioartificial Liver in Treating
X-MOL首页 › Integr Biol (Camb) ; Nat Rev Drug Discov ; Analyst ; Cancer Cell ; Anal Chem ; Nat Protoc ; Curr Opin Microbiol ; Biochemistry ; Nature ; Langmuir ...
Soil remediation through surface modification - Chang, Yun-feng
In one embodiment, the modifier is an ionic additive or water soluble polymer or dispersing regent selected from inorganic acids, low molecular weight organic acids, polyacids, cationic and anionic water soluble polymers. In another embodiment, the amount of stabilizing agent added is at least 20 parts per million by weight (wt ppm).
Environmental Science & Technology | Vol 52, No 3
Self-Assembled Molecular Complexes and Coordination Polymers of CdII, Hexamine, and Monocarboxylates: Structural Analysis and Theoretical Studies of Supramolecular Interactions. Journal of the American Chemical Society. Reductive Etherification via Anion-Binding Catalysis. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Liquid Detergents 2nd ed K - vibdoc
DK3124_half-series-title 7/5/05 1:22 PM Page A LIQUID DETERGENTS Second Edition © 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC DK3124_half-series-title 7/5/05 1:22 PM Page B ...
Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) and Medicinal Plants
The influence of root exudates on the proliferation of soil microorganisms around and inside roots as well as interactions between soil microorganisms, rhizosphere colonies, and plant hosts have been widely studied. Studies based on molecular techniques have estimated about 4,000 microbial species per gram of soil samples.
Development Document for Proposed Effluent Guidelines
----- Development Document for Construction and Development Proposed Effluent Guidelines SECTION 1: OVERVIEW 1.1 INTRODUCTION This document presents technical information to support the Agency's analyses and complements "Economic Analysis of Proposed Effluent Guidelines and Standards for the Construction and Development Category," EPA-821-R-02 ...
Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality - World Health
There are few chemicals for which the contribution from drinking-water to overall intake is an important factor in preventing disease. One example is the effect of flu- oride in drinking-water in increasing prevention against dental caries. The Guidelines do not attempt to define minimum desirable concentrations for chemicals in drink- ing-water.
70 30 0. 100 0 0. 100 0 0. 50 50 0. 100 0 0. 33 33 34. 50 50 0. 100 0 0. 40 30 30. 100 0 0. 35 35 30. 80 20 0. 100 0 0. 50 50 0. 100 0 0. 70 30 0. 50 50 0. 70 30 0 ...